The suspension is the component and sub-assembly that connects each wheel of the vehicle to the other parts of the machine. It is an essential element that makes the vehicle comfortable to drive and ensures a predictable and smooth ride.
How it works
The purpose of the suspension system is to absorb the impact energy of the car's wheels against the road surface. This is made possible by the coordinated and coherent action of its components:
1. the wheels can hit both rocks and bumps while the car is in motion. Because the wheels are connected to other parts of the suspension, these parts change their position depending on how the wheel itself is moving.
2. The energy acting on the wheels is then transferred to the shock absorbers. Before the vehicle hits an obstacle, the springs, which have been released, compress and prevent the transfer of impact energy from the chassis to the body. Almost all impacts to the ground are absorbed by the compression of the springs.
3. After the impact energy is absorbed, the spring is compressed again and the rest of the suspension returns to its original position.
It can be said that this is necessary for very important reasons:
- to stabilise the car in motion - this is possible because the wheels are in constant contact with the road surface;
- to absorb all the shocks, vibrations and oscillations that inevitably occur when the vehicle is driven;
- maintain the wheel position in the correct direction, thus ensuring precise control of the vehicle.
How is the suspension adjusted?
Its structure varies depending on the vehicle model. However, the components that make up the suspension system are divided into categories according to their purpose:
1. they absorb most of the shocks and impacts caused by the wheels hitting the road surface. The remainder of the energy is distributed evenly throughout the body of the vehicle. Torsion bars, springs and coil springs.
2. Components designed to absorb impact energy. They can be either pneumatic or hydraulic or a combination of both, i.e. hydropneumatic.
3. Components that ensure the correct alignment of the wheels while driving. In this case we are talking about levers, levers, beams, brake calipers and stops, which are able to provide good cushioning and distribute the load correctly throughout the suspension system.
4. Anti-rotation bumper - allows the vehicle to correct its trajectory as it rotates.
Other parts of the suspension system are also connected by various additional metal parts.
What types of suspension are used today?
Sports car models are endowed with a rigid suspension system to provide better grip on the road surface, but with it the car will not have a smooth ride on rough roads. Conventional passenger cars tend to use a soft suspension system.
What types of suspension come in:
- torsion bar;
- double wishbone;
What faults can occur
Several signs indicate that a fault has occurred in the vehicle's suspension that needs to be repaired:
- if you hear a noise while driving, such as a rattling or banging noise;
- when the front of the body starts to sag;
- when the car starts to "sway" to one side while driving;
- if the front axle vibrates at an angle.
What causes this and what to do:
- It's time to replace the shock absorbers, or the problem can be solved by replacing the faulty assembly;
- The bolts holding the anti-sway bar need to be retightened or the rubber washers need to be replaced;
- Worn ball bearing parts need to be replaced;
- wheel bearings that have reached the end of their service life must be replaced;
- the front and rear axles must be aligned so that they are parallel;
- a twisted joint: if it is slightly twisted, you can try to straighten it, even if it is difficult; if it is too twisted, only replacement will help.
Breakage of suspension parts can be avoided by monitoring the condition of the parts and assemblies and by systematic inspection. But if you still can't avoid problems, you can buy the right suspension part in a special section of our website.